Papers and Publications
Klingler, Jonathan D., Gary E. Hollibaugh, Jr., and Adam J. Ramey.“What I Like About You: Legislator Personality and Legislator Approval.”. (forthcoming at Political Behavior).
Ramey, Adam J., Jonathan D. Klingler, and Gary E. Hollibaugh, Jr.“Measuring Elite Personality Using Speech.” Political Science Research and Methods, 2019, 7(1), 163-184.
Hollibaugh, Gary E., Jr., Adam J. Ramey, and Jonathan D. Klingler. “Welcome to the Machine: A Model of Legislator Personality and Communications Technology Adoption.” SAGE Open, 2018.
Klingler, Jonathan D., Gary E. Hollibaugh, Jr., Adam J. Ramey. “Don’t Know What You Got: A Bayesian Hierarchical Model of Neuroticism and Nonresponse.” Political Science Research and Methods, 2018, 6(3) 549-569.
Klingler, Jonathan, “More Than a Feeling: Personality, Polarization, and the Transformation of the U.S. Congress” with Adam J. Ramey and Gary Hollibaugh, Jr. University of Chicago Press, 2017.
Klingler, Jonathan, “Are You Doing Your Part? Veterans, Political Attitudes and Heinlein’s Conception of Citi- zenship”, with Tyson Chatagnier Armed Forces and Society, 2014, 40(4), 673-695
Armaly, Miles T., “Extra-judicial Actor Induced Change in Supreme Court Legitimacy.” 2018. Political Research Quarterly 71(3)
Enders, Adam M. and Miles T. Armaly. Forthcoming. “The Differential Effects of Actual and Perceived Polarization.” Political Behavior.
Armaly, Miles T., “Politicized Nominations and Supreme Court Legitimacy in the Polarization Era.” 2018. Justice System Journal.
Carter, Jeff and Timothy Nordstrom. “Term Limits, Leader Preferences, and Interstate Conflict,” forthcoming at International Studies Quarterly. 61(3): 721-735
Reed, William, David Clark, Timothy Nordstrom and Daniel Siegel. 2016. “Bargaining in the Shadow of a Commitment Problem.,” Research and Politics July-September:1-9. DOI: 10.1177/2053168016666848.
Clark, David H., Benjamin O. Fordham, and Timothy Nordstrom. 2016. “Political Party and Presidential Decisions to Use Force: Explaining a Puzzling Non-Finding.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 46(4): 791-807. (Special Issue on Presidential Use of Force).
Carter, Jeff, Michael Bernhard, and Timothy Nordstrom. 2016. “Communist and Soviet Legacies and Democratic Survival in a Comparative Perspective: Liability or Advantage?” Eastern European Politics and Societies and Cultures 30(4):830-854.
Mason, Lilliana and Julie Wronski. 2018. “One Tribe to Bind Them All: How Our Social Group Attachments Strengthen Partisanship.” Political Psychology, 39(S1): 257-277.
Wronski, Julie, Alexa Bankert, Karyn Amira, April Johnson, and Lindsey Levitan. Forthcoming 2019. “A Tale of Two Democrats: How Authoritarianism Divides the Democratic Party.” Journal of Politics.
Mann, Christopher B., Gayle A Alberda, Nathaniel A Birkhead, Yu Ouyang, Chloe Singer, Charles Stewart III, Michael C Herron, Emily Beaulieu, Frederick Boehmke, Joshua Boston, Francisco Cantu, Rachel Cobb, David Darmofal, Thomas C Ellington, Charles J Finocchiaro, Michael Gilbert, Victor Haynes, Brian Janssen, David Kimball, Charles Krornkowski, Elena Llaudet, Matthew R. Miles, David Miller, Lindsay Nielson, Costas Panagopoulos, Andrew Reeves, Min Hee Seo, Haley Simmons, Corwin Smidt, Robert Stein, Rachel VanSickle-Ward, Abby K. Wood, and Julie Wronski. 2018. “Pedagogical Value of Polling-Place Observation by Students.” PS: Political Science & Politics, 1-7. doi:l0.1017/S1049096518000550
Doherty, David, Conor M. Dowling, and Michael G. Miller. Forthcoming. “The Effects of Candidate Race and Gender on Party Chairs’ Assessments of Electoral Viability.” Journal of Politics.
Patashnik, Eric M., Alan S. Gerber, and Conor M. Dowling. 2017. Unhealthy Politics: The Battle overEvidence-Based Medicine. Princeton University Press.
- Awarded the Don K. Price Award for the best book on science, technology, and politics published in the last year by the American Political Science Association’s Science, Technology & Environmental Politics Section (2018).
- Awarded the Louis Brownlow Book Award, which recognizes outstanding contributions on topics of wide contemporary interest to practitioners and scholars in the field of public administration, by the National Academy of Public Administration (2018).
Dowling, Conor, and Michael G. Miller. 2014. Super PAC! Money, Elections, and Voters After Citizens United. Routledge.
Doherty, David, Conor M. Dowling, Alan S. Gerber, and Gregory A. Huber. 2017. “Are Voting Norms Conditional? How Electoral Context and Peer Behavior Shape the Social Returns to Voting.” Journal of Politics 79: 1095-1100.
Jonathan Winburn, Michael Henderson, and Conor M. Dowling. 2017. “From the Constituent’s Eye: Experimental Evidence on the District Selection Preferences of Individuals.” Political Research Quarterly 70: 32-41
Dowling, Conor M., and Michael G. Miller. 2017. “Experimental Evidence on the Relationship between Candidate Funding Sources and Voter Evaluations.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 3: 152-163.
Doherty, David, Conor M. Dowling, and Michael G. Miller. 2016. “When Is Changing Policy Positions Costly for Politicians? Experimental Evidence.” Political Behavior. DOI: 10.1007/s11109-015-9321-9
Gerber, Alan S., Gregory A. Huber, David Doherty, and Conor M. Dowling. “Why People Vote: Estimating the Social Returns to Voting.” British Journal of Political Science. DOI: 10.1017/S0007123414000271
Dowling, Conor M., and Michael G. Miller. 2015. “Can Information Alter Perceptions about Women’s Chances of Winning Office? Evidence from a Panel Study.” Politics & Gender 11: 55-88.
Dowling, Conor M., and Amber Wichowsky. 2015. “Attacks without Consequence? Anonymity, Disclosure, and the Effectiveness of Negative Advertising.” American Journal of Political Science 59: 19-36.
Gerber, Alan S., Eric M. Patashnik, David Doherty, and Conor M. Dowling. 2014. “Doctor Knows Best: Physician Endorsements, Public Opinion, and the Politics of CER.” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 39: 171-209.
Dowling, Conor M., and Amber Wichowsky. 2013. “Does it Matter Who’s Behind the Curtain? Anonymity in Political Advertising and the Effects of Campaign Finance Disclosure.” American Politics Research 41: 965-996.
Gerber, Alan S., Gregory A. Huber, David Doherty, Conor M. Dowling, and Seth J. Hill. 2013. “Do Perceptions of Ballot Secrecy Influence Turnout? Results from a Field Experiment.” American Journal of Political Science 57: 537-551.
Gerber, Alan S., Gregory A. Huber, David Doherty, Conor M. Dowling, and Seth J. Hill. 2013. “Who Wants to Discuss Vote Choices with Others? Polarization in Preferences for Deliberation.” Public Opinion Quarterly77: 474-496.
Gerber, Alan S., Gregory A. Huber, David Doherty, Conor M. Dowling, and Costas Panagopoulos. 2013. “Big Five Personality Traits and Responses to Persuasive Appeals: Evidence from Voter Turnout Experiments.” Political Behavior 35: 687-728.
Gerber, Alan S., Gregory A. Huber, David Doherty, and Conor M. Dowling. 2013. “Assessing the Stability of Psychological and Political Survey Measures.” American Politics Research 41: 54-75.
Gerber, Alan S., Gregory A. Huber, David Doherty, and Conor M. Dowling. 2013. “Is There a Secret Ballot? Ballot Secrecy Perceptions and Their Implications for Voting Behaviour.” British Journal of Political Science 43: 77-102.
Krupnikov, Yanna, and Conor M. Dowling. 2016. “The Effects of Negative Advertising.” In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Ed.
Dowling, Conor M. 2016. “Idiocracy: Do You Need To Be Informed To Vote in a Democracy?” In Poli Sci Fi: An Introduction to Political Science through Science Fiction. Michael A. Allen and Justin S. Vaughn (eds.). Routledge.
Gerber, Alan S., Kevin Arceneaux, Cheryl Boudreau, Conor M. Dowling, and D. Sunshine Hillygus. 2015. “Reporting Balance Tables, Response Rates and Manipulation Checks in Experimental Research: A Reply from the Committee that Prepared the Reporting Guidelines.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 2: 216-229.
Gerber, Alan S., Kevin Arceneaux, Cheryl Boudreau, Conor M. Dowling, D. Sunshine Hillygus, Thomas R. Palfrey, Daniel R. Biggers, and David J. Hendry. 2014. “Reporting Guidelines for Experimental Research: A Report from the Experimental Research Section Standards Committee.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 1: 81-98.
Doherty, David, Conor M. Dowling, and Michael G. Miller. 2014. “Does Time Heal All Wounds? Scandals and the Passage of Time.” PS: Political Science & Politics, Symposium 47: 357-366.
Carter, Jeff and Giacomo Chiozza. 2018. “State Leaders and Foreign Policy,” in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis, edited by Cameron Thies. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.487
Carter, Jeff, 2017. “The Political Cost of War Mobilization in Democracies and Dictatorships.” Journal of Conflict Resolution. 61(8): 1768-1794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022002715620469
Carter, Jeff, Michael Bernhard, and Timothy Nordstrom. 2016. “Communist Legacies and Democratic Survival in a Comparative Perspective: Liability or Advantage?” Accepted at East European Politics & Societies and Cultures.
Carter, Jeff, 2017. “The Political Cost of War Mobilization in Democracies and Dictatorships.” at the Journal of Conflict Resolution. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022002715620469
Carter, Jeff and Glenn Palmer. 2016. “Regime Type and Interstate War Finance.” Forthcoming at Foreign Policy Analysis. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/fpa/orw021
Lemke, Douglas and Jeff Carter. 2016. “Birth Legacies, State Making, and War.” Journal of Politics. 78(2): 497-511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/684631
Carter, Jeff and Glenn Palmer. 2015. “Keeping the Schools Open while the Troops are Away: Regime Type, Interstate War, and Government Spending.” International Studies Quarterly. 59(1): 145-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/isqu.12160
Love, Greg, “Public Support for Latin American Presidents: The Cyclical Model in Comparative Perspective” (with Ryan E. Carlin, Jonathan Hartlyn, Timothy Hellwig, Cecilia Martinez-Gallardo, and Matthew Singer). Forthcoming. Research and Politics.
Love, Greg, “Presidents’ Sex and Popularity: Baselines, Dynamics, and Policy Performance” (with Ryan E. Carlin and Miguel Carreras). Forthcoming, British Journal of Political Science.
Love, Greg, “Aló Presidente: Language and Populism in Chavez’s Venezuela” (with Leah Windsor), Forthcoming, Political Research Quarterly.
Love, Greg, “Trust Measurement Validity and Reliability in a Cross-National Context.” (with Ryan E. Carlin and Conal Smith). Forthcoming, OECD Statistics Working Papers Series.
Love, Greg, “Trust and Cooperation in Representative Democracies: Partisanship, Stereotypes and Polarization.” (with Ryan E. Carlin). 2018. British Journal of Political Science, 48:2.
Love, Greg, “Local Governance” in The Political Culture of Democracy in the Americas, 2016/17: A Comparative Study of Democracy and Governance, ed. Mollie Cohen, Noam Lupu, and Elizabeth Zechmeister, 2017, Vanderbilt University.
Ryan E. Carlin and Gregory J. Love, “Political Competition, Partisanship and Interpersonal Trust in Electoral Democracies”, British Journal of Political Science / FirstView Article / January 2016, pp 1 – 25 DOI: 10.1017/S0007123415000526, Published online: http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0007123415000526
Love, Greg, “Who is the Latin American Voter?” (with Ryan E. Carlin) 2015, in The Latin American Voter eds. Ryan E. Carlin, Matthew Singer, and Elizabeth Zechmeister. University of Michigan Press.
Love, Greg, “Security, Clarity of Responsibility, and Presidential Approval.” (with Ryan E. Carlin and Cecilia Martínez- Gallardo). 2015. Comparative Political Studies. 48:4.
Love, Greg, “Cushioning the Fall: Political Scandals, Presidential Approval and the Economic Performance of the Government.” (with Ryan E. Carlin and Cecilia Martínez-Gallardo). 2015. Political Behavior. 37:1.
Love Greg, “When Natural Disasters Strengthen Democracy: The Case of Chile’s February 2010 Earthquake.” (with Ryan E. Carlin and Elizabeth J. Zechmeister). 2014. Political Research Quarterly. 67:3-15
Love, Greg, “Trust Shaken: Earthquake Damage & Interpersonal Trust in Comparative Perspective.” (with Ryan E. Carlin and Elizabeth J. Zechmeister). 2014. Comparative Politics. 46:4.
Love, Greg, “What’s at Stake? A Veto-Player Theory of Voter Turnout.” (with Ryan E. Carlin) 2013. Electoral Studies. 32: 807-818.
Love, Greg, “The Politics of Interpersonal Trust: An Experimental Approach.” (with Ryan E. Carlin) 2013, Political Behavior v.35(1) 43-63.
Guo, Gang. Forthcoming 2016. “Domestic Migration, Benefit Spillovers, and Local Education Spending: Evidence from China 1993-2009.” Asia Pacific Journal of Education.
Guo, Gang. 2015. “Changes in Political Values in Mainland China since the 1990s: Evidence from Surveys.” Chapter 9 in Confucian Culture and Democracy, edited by John Fuh-sheng Hsieh, Pages 197-224. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.
Wang, Qinghua and Gang Guo. 2015. “Yu Keping and the Chinese Intellectual Discourse on Good Governance.” The China Quarterly, Volume 224, December, Pages 985-1005.
Guo, Gang. 2015. Book review: “Lynette H. Ong. Prosper or Perish: Credit and Fiscal Systems in Rural China. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2012, 232p.” Journal of Chinese Political Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, March, Pages 91-92.
Jones, Benjamin, “Different Words, Same Some: Advice for Substantively Interpreting Duration Models,” Forthcoming at PS: Political Science and Politics, with Shawna K. Metzger
Jones, Benjamin, “mstatecox in Stata: A Package for Simulating Transition Probabilities from Semi-Parametric Multi-State Survival Models.” Forthcoming at Stata Journal, with Shawna K. Metzger.
Jones, Benjamin, “Altering Capabilities or Imposing Costs? Intervention Strategy and Civil War Outcomes.” 2017. International Studies Quarterly, 61(1): 52-63.
Jones, Benjamin,“Food Scarcity and State Vulnerability: Unpacking the Link Between Climate Change and Violent Social Unrest.” 2017. Journal of Peace Research, 54(3): 335-350, with Eleonora Mattiacci, and Bear F. Braumoeller.
Jones, Benjamin, “Evaluating Conflict Dynamics: A Novel Empirical Approach to Stage Conceptions.” Forthcoming at the Journal of Conflict Resolution, with Shawna K. Metzger.
Jones, Benjamin, “Surviving Phases: Introducing Multi-State Survival Models.” 2016. Political Analysis, 24(4): 457-244, with Shawna K. Metzger.
Jones, Benjamin,“Conflict Dynamics.” 2016. Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy and Governance. Springer International Publishing, with Shawna K. Metzger.
Jones, Benjamin,“(Nuclear) Change of Plans: What Explains Nuclear Reversals?” 2016. International Interactions, 42(3): 530-558, with Eleonora Mattiacci.
Jones, Benjamin, “Altering Capabilities or Imposing Costs? Intervention Strategy and Civil War Outcomes.” International Studies Quarterly.
Jones, Benjamin, “Conflict Dynamics.” Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, Springer, with Shawna K. Metzger.Allen,
Allen, Susan Hannah and Carla Martinez Machain. Forthcoming. “Understanding the Impact of Air Power” Conflict Management and Peace Science.
Allen, Susan Hannah and Michael Flynn. Forthcoming. “Donor Government Ideology and Aid Bypass.” Foreign Policy Analysis
Allen, Susan Hannah and Carla Martinez Machain. 2018. “Choosing Air Strikes.” Journal of Global Security Studies 3(2): 150-162.
Licht, Amanda L. and Susan Hannah Allen. 2018. “Reputation for Repression” Journal of Peace Research. 55(5): 582-595.
Allen, Susan Hannah and Amy T. Yuen. 2014. “The Politics of Peacekeeping: UN Security Council Oversight Across Peacekeeping Missions.” International Studies Quarterly 58 (3): 621-632.
Allen, Susan Hannah and Maryann Gallagher. 2013. “Presidential Personality: Not Just a Nuisance.” Foreign Policy Analysis 10 (1): 1-21.
Allen, Susan Hannah and David J. Lektzian. 2013. “Economic Sanctions: A Blunt Instrument?” Journal of Peace Research. 50(1): 121-135.
Cooper, Alice, “The Dog that didn’t Bark: Explaining Change in Germany’s Tobacco Control Policy at Home and in the EU” (with Paulette Kurzer), German Politics 25:4, 2016, pp. 541-560.
Cooper, Alice, “Difficult Decisions: The GAL and “Schwarz-Gruen” in Hamburg, German Politics and Society, 32:4, 2014, pp. 1-20.
Cooper, Alice, “Biased or not? Organized Interests and the Case of EU Food Information Labeling” (with Paulette Kurzer), Journal of European Public Policy, 20:5, 2013, pp. 722-740.
Cooper, Alice, “Hold the Croissant! The European Union Declares War on Obesity,” (with Paulette Kurzer), Journal of European Social Policy 21:2, 2011, pp. 1-13.
Brown, Robert D., Jonathan Winburn, and Douglass Sullivan-Gonzalez. Forthcoming. “The Value-Added of Honors Programs in Recruitment, Retention, and Student Success: Impacts of the Sally McDonnell Barksdale Honors College at the University of Mississippi.” Journal of the National Collegiate Honors Council.
Jonathan Winburn, Michael Henderson, and Conor M. Dowling. 2017. “From the Constituent’s Eye: Experimental Evidence on the District Selection Preferences of Individuals.” Political Research Quarterly 70: 32-41.
Sullivan, Jas M., Jonathan Winburn, and William E. Cross, Jr. 2018. Dimensions of Blackness: Racial Identity and Political Beliefs. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Winburn, Jonathan. 2008. The Realities of Redistricting: Following the Rules and Limiting Gerrymandering in State Legislative Redistricting. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Carsey, Thomas, William Berry, and Jonathan Winburn. Forthcoming. “Rethinking the Normal Vote, the Personal Vote, and the Impact of Legislative Professionalism in U.S. State Legislative Elections.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly.
Sullivan, Jas M., Michael Henderson, Wayne Parent, and Jonathan Winburn. 2018. “African Americans and American Values: Does South Matter?” Social Science Quarterly. doi:10.1111/ssqu.12394.
Winburn, Jonathan, Michael Henderson, and Conor Dowling. 2017. “From the Constituent’s Eye: Experimental Evidence on the District Selection Preferences of Individuals.” Political Research Quarterly. Vol 70, No. 1: 32-41.
Winburn, Jonathan, Amanda Winburn, and Ryan Niemeyer. 2014. “Media Coverage and Issue Visibility: State Legislative Responses to School Bullying.” Social Science Journal Vol. 51, No. 4: 514-522.
Sullivan, Jas M. and Jonathan Winburn. “The Role of Discrimination in Shaping the Presence and Strength of Linked Fate.” in Meaning-Making, Internalized Racism, and African American Identity, eds. Jas M. Sullivan and William Cross, Jr. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Winburn, Jonathan. 2015. “Effects of Redistricting on Legislative Elections.” in Jigsaw Politics in the Sunshine State, ed. Seth C. McKee. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida: 225-241.
Winburn, Jonathan. 2016. “Promises and Pitfalls of State Legislative Data.” The Legislative Scholar (The Newsletter of the Legislative Studies Section of the American Political Science Association) Vol. 1, No. 2: 22-24.
Zeira, Yael, Forthcoming (2019). The Revolution Within: State Institutions and Unarmed Resistance in Palestine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zeira, Yael, “Lessons from Results-Blind Review” (with Sarah Bush, Aaron Erlich, and Lauren Prather). The Political Economist 14(1): 10-13. 2018
Zeira, Yael, “International recognition and public opinion towards conflict and violence.” OpenGlobalRights on OpenDemocracy.net, May 16, 2017
Zeira, Yael, 2017,“Recognition Matters! UN State Status and Attitudes Towards Territorial Compromise” (with Nadav Shelef). The Journal of Conflict Resolution 61(3): 537-563.
Zeira, Yael, 2016, “The Effects of Authoritarian Iconography: An Experimental Test” (with Sarah Bush, Aaron Erlich, and Lauren Prather). Comparative Political Studies 49(13): 1704-1738.
Zeira, Yael, The Revolution Within: State Institutions and Unarmed Resistance in Palestine
Zeira, Yael, “From the Schools to the Streets: Education and Anti-Regime Resistance in the West Bank” Forthcoming 2018
Zeira, Yael, “International recognition and support for violence among nonpartisans” (with Nadav G. Shelef, under review) Forthcoming 2018
Zeira, Yael, “Exploring the Determinants of Early Marriage in the Muslim World” (with Lisa Blaydes and Jeremy Weinstein) Forthcoming 2018
Marvin King, Neoliberalism and Higher Education Funding: Politics or Economics? Submitted to Journal of Education Finance Forthcoming 2018
King, Marvin P. Jr., 2011. The Continued Relevance of the Congressional Black Caucus: A Study of Bill Preference.” Politics & Policy 39: 421-439
Allen, Marcus and Marvin P. King, Jr. Winter 2010-2011. “The Electoral Geography of Black Electoral Success.” American Review of Politics 31: 333-356
McLean, Stephanie and Marvin P. King, Jr. 2011. “The American Path to Democracy,” in Democratization in Theory and Practice, ed. Mary Fran T. Malone. Continuum Books: New York
Ryan C. Black, Ryan J. Owens, and Miles T. Armaly. 2016. “A Well-Traveled Lot: A Research Note on Judicial Travel by U.S. Supreme Court Justices.” Justice System Journal.
Fudge, Daniel and Sue Ann Skipworth. 2017. “Kids in the Capitol: Improving Civic Literacy Through Experiential Learning.” Learning: Research and Practice 3(2): 163-167.
DiGiuseppe, Matthew,Arms and Democratic Allies. (with Paul Poast) Forthcoming at The British Journal of Political Science
DiGiuseppe, Matthew, The Physical Consequences of Fiscal Flexibility: Sovereign Credit and Physical Integrity Rights (with K. Chad Clay) Forthcoming at the British Journal of Political Science
DiGiuseppe, Matthew, Borrowed Time: Sovereign Finance, Regime Type & Leader Survival (with Patrick Shea) 2017. Economics & Politics 28(3).
DiGiuseppe, Matthew, Guns, Butter and Debt: Sovereign Creditworthiness and Military Spending 2015. the Journal of Peace Research 52(2).
DiGiuseppe, Matthew, Sovereign Credit and the Fate of Leaders: Reassessing the Democratic Advantage (with Patrick Shea) 2015. International Studies Quarterly 59(3): 557-570.
DiGiuseppe, Matthew, The Fiscal Autonomy of Deciders: Creditworthiness and Conflict Initiation 2015. Foreign Policy Analysis 11(3): 317-338.
DiGiuseppe, Matthew, Tightening the Belt: Austerity and Alliance Formation (with Michael A. Allen) 2013. International Studies Quarterly 57(4): 647-659:
DiGiuseppe, Matthew,Good for the Money? International Finance, State Capacity and Internal Armed Conflict (with Colin Barry and Richard Frank) 2012. Journal of Peace Research 49(3): 391-405.